Pattern (form) History & Definitions
Patterns are a very important and necessary aspect of Taekwondo training. They constitute a major part of the students grading requirements as they are tested for promotion through the belt ranks of Taekwondo.
Patterns consist of a collection of various fundemental movements set in a specific order. During the pattern, the practicioner systematically deals with multiple opponents using an array of diiferent attacking and blocking tools. Patterns help a student to practice many of the fundemental movements required for their promotion all while developing sparring techniques, improving flexibility, improving balance, mastering body shifting, strengthening muscles, developing breath control, and fluid, precise, rhythmical movements.
There are 24 patterns in the ITF or Chang-Hon style of Taekwondo. Below are the historical meanings behind each form, the name of the pattern, the number of movements, and the diagrammatic symbol of each pattern symbolize either heroic figures in Korean history or circumstances relating to historical events. As written by General Choi Hong Hi the founder of this style.
White Belt - Chon Ji: (19 moves, left foot returns) Means literally the Heaven the Earth. It is in the Orient, interpreted as the creation of the world or the beginning of human history; therefore, it is the initial pattern played by the beginner. This pattern consists of two similar parts; one to represent the Heaven and the other the Earth.
Orange Belt - Dan Gun: (21 moves, left foot returns) Is named after the holy Dan-Gun, the legendary founder of Korea in the year of 2,333 B.C.
Yellow Belt - Do San: (24 moves, right foot returns) Is the pseudonym of the patriot Ahn Chang-Ho (1876-1938).The 24 movements represent his entire life which he devoted to furthering the education of Korea and its independence movement.
Camoflauge Belt - Won Hyo: (28 moves, right foot returns) Was the noted monk who introduced Buddhism to the Silla Dynasty in the year of 686 A.D.
Green Belt - Yul Gok: (38 moves, left foot returns) Is the pseudonym of a great philosopher and scholar Yil (1536-1584) nicknamed the "Confucius of Korea". The 38 movements of this pattern refer to his birthplace on 38th degree latitude and the diagram represents expansion and recovery of lost territory.
Purple Belt - Joong Gun: (32 moves, left foot returns) Is named after the patriot Ahn Joong-Gun who assassinated Hiro-Bumo Ito, the first Japanese governor / general of Korea, known as the man who played the leading part in the Korea-Japan merger. There are 32 movements in this pattern to represent Mr. Ahns age when he was executed at Lui-Shung prison (1910).
Blue Belt - Toi Gye: (37 moves, right foot returns)Is the pen name of the noted scholar Yi Hwang (16th century), an authority on neo-Confucianism. The 37 movements of the pattern refer to his birthplace on 37th degrees latitude, the diagram represents "scholar".
Brown Belt - Hwa Rang: (29 moves, right foot returns)Is named after the Hwa-Rang youth group which originated in the Silla Dynasty in the early 7th century. The 29 movements refer to the 29th Infantry Division, where Taekwon-Do developed into its full maturity.
Red Belt - Choong Moo: (30 moves, left foot returns) Was the name given to the great Admiral Yi Soon-Sin of the Yi Dynasty. He was reputed to have invented the first armored battleship (Kobukson) in 1592, which is said to be the precursor of the present day submarine. The reason why this pattern ends with a left hand attack is to symbolize his regrettable death, having no chance to show his unrestrained potential checked by the forced reservation of his loyalty to the king.
Recommended Black Belt - Kwang Gae: (39 moves, left foot returns) is named after the famous Gwang-Gae-Toh-Wang, the 19th King of the Koguryo Dynasty, who regained all the lost territories including the greater part of Manchuria. The diagram represents expansion and recovery of lost territory. The 39 movements refer to the first two figures of 391 A.D., the year he came to the throne.
1st Degree Black Belt - Po Eun: (36 moves, left foot returns) Is the pseudonym of a loyal subject Chong Mong-Chu (1400) who was a famous poet and whose poem “I would not serve a second master though I might be crucified a hundred times", is known to every Korean. He was also a pioneer in the field of physics. The diagram represents his unerring loyalty to the king and country towards the end of the Koryo Dynasty.
1st Degree Black Belt - Ge Baek: (44 moves, right foot returns) Is named after Ge-Baek, a great general in the Baek Je Dynasty (660 A.D.). The diagram represents his severe and strict military discipline.
2nd Degree Recommended Black Belt - Eui Am: (45 moves, right foot returns) Is the pseudonym of Son Byong Hi, leader of the Korean independence movement on March 1, 1919. The 45 movements refer to his age when he changed the name Dong Hak (Oriental Culture) to Chondo Kyo (Heavenly Way Religion) in 1905. The diagram represents his indomitable spirit, displayed while dedicating himself to the prosperity of his nation.
2nd Degree Black Belt - Choong Jang: (52 moves, left foot returns)Is the pseudonym given to General Kim Duk Ryang who lived during the Yi Dynasty, 14th century. This pattern ends with a left-hand attack to symbolize the tragedy of his death at 27 in prison before he was able to reach full maturity.
2nd Degree Black Belt - Juche: (45 moves, right foot returns)Is a philosophical idea that man is the master of everything and decides everything, in other words, the idea that man is the master of the world and his own destiny. It is said that this idea was rooted in Baekdu Mountain which symbolizes the spirit of the Korean people. The diagram represents Baekdu Mountain.
2nd Degree Black Belt - Kodang: (39 moves)The pseudonym of the patriot Cho-Man-Sik, who dedicated his life to the independance movement and the education of his people. The 39 movements in this pattern signify his times of imprisonment and his birthplace on the 39th parallel.
3rd Degree Black Belt - Sam Il: (33 moves, left foot returns) Denotes the historical date of the independence movement of Korea which began throughout the country on March 1, 1919. The 33 movements in the pattern stand for the 33 patriots who planned this movement.
3rd Degree Black Belt - Yoo Sin: (68 moves, right foot returns) Is named after General Kim Yoo Sin, a commanding general during the Silla Dynasty. The 68 movements refer to the last two figures of 668 A.D., the year Korea was united. The ready posture signifies a sword drawn on the right rather than left side, symbolizing Yoo Sin’s mistake of following his king’s orders to fight with foreign forces against his own nation.
3rd Degree Black Belt - Choi Yong: (46 moves, right foot returns) Is named after the general Choi Yong, Premier and Commander-in-Chief of the Armed forces during the 14th century Koryo Dynasty. Choi Yong was greatly respected for his loyalty, patriotism, and humility. He was executed by his subordinate commanders headed by General Yi Sung Gae, who later became the first king of the Yi Dynasty.
4th Degree Black Belt - Yon Gae: (49 moves, right foot returns) Is named after a famous general during the Koguryo Dynasty, Yon Gae Somoon. The 49 movements refer to the last two figures of 649 A.D., the year he forced the Tang Dynasty to quit Korea after destroying nearly 300,000 of their troops at Ansi Sung.
4th Degree Black Belt - Ul Ji: (42 moves, left foot returns) Is named after general Ul-Ji Moo Dok who successfully defended Korea against a Tang’s invasion force of nearly one million soldiers led by Yang Je in 612 A.D., Ul-Ji employing hit and run guerilla tactics, was able to decimate a large percentage of the force. The diagram represents his surname. The 42 movements represent the author’s age when he designed the pattern.
4th Degree Black Belt - Moon Moo: (61 moves, right foot returns) Honors the 30th king of the Silla Dynasty. His body was buried near Dae Wang Am (Great King’s Rock). According to his will, the body was placed in the sea “Where my soul shall forever defend my land against the Japanese.” It is said that the Sok Gul Am (Stone Cave) was built to guard his tomb. The Sok Gul Am is a fine example of the culture of the Silla Dynasty. The 61 movements in this pattern symbolize the last two figures of 661 A.D. when Moon Moo came to the throne.
5th Degree Black Belt - So San: (72 moves, right foot returns) Is the pseudonym of the great monk Choi Hyong Ung (1520-1604) during the Yi Dynasty. The 72 movements refer to his age when he organized a corps of monk soldiers with the assistance of his pupil Sa Myung Dang. The monk soldiers helped repulse the Japanese pirates who overran most of the Korean peninsula in 1592.
5th Degree Black Belt - Se Jong: (24 moves, left foot returns) Is named after the greatest Korean king, Se-Jong, who invented the Korean alphabet in 1443, and was also a noted meteorologist. The diagram represents the king, while the 24 movements refer to the 24 letters of the Korean alphabet.
6th Degree Black Belt - Tong Il: (56 moves, right foot returns) Denotes the resolution of the unification of Korea which has been divided since 1945. The diagram symbolizes the homogeneous race.
"Modern" Taekwondo Patterns
The late great Grandmaster Park was able to share his patterns with us before he passed away. We continue to keep his legacy alive by teaching these patterns at Black Belt Level.
Jee Goo: (30 moves, left foot returns) Means Global. The ready stance is a parallel ready stance with forearms crossed. This stance symbolizes the crossing out of the years of strife in Taekwondo. The first movement represents breaking away from the past and reflects Grand Master Parks desire for world peace and harmony. The 30 movements are divided into 24, 4, and 2. The number 24 represents the hours in a day, so that the thought of world peace and harmony will be with us every second. The number 4 represents the 4 directions of North, South, East and West, for all people of all nations. The number 2 is demonstrated by playing the pattern twice in each direction to reaffirm our committment to the idea of world peace and harmony.
Jook- Am: (95 moves, right foot returns) Jook-Am is a pseudonym for Grandmaster Park Jung Tae. Jook means Bamboo which roots shoot straight up without any curvature. Its roots intertwining to form an inseperable force. Am is an immovable boulder from which the bamboo plants its roots to form an unshakable foundation. This pattern represents Grandmaster Parks life and his constant struggle for perfection. The diagram is a representation of a bamboo shooting up from the boulder. This patterns 95 moves symbolizes the year 1995.
Pyun Hwa: (50 moves, right foot returns) Presents world peace. Each move represents one of the 50 countries that formed the United Nations in San Fransisco, CA in 1955. The objective of the United Nations was for all countries to work together to achieve world peace and harmony. The ready stance represents world peace and harmony.
Sun Duk: (68 moves, right foot returns) Sun Duk is named after Queen Sun Duk of the Silla Dynasty in 668 AD. She was known for bringing martial arts from China to Korea. The diagram represents "Lady". The 68 moves of this pattern refer to the year 668 AD.
Master Serdinsky's Patterns
Master Serdinsky created these patterns to honor his instructor, and to share with all of his students. While still encompassing all of the traditional qualities that the Chan Hon patterns are known for, these patterns contain the techniques that Master Serdinsky teaches his Black Belts at each level. Students of Master Serdinsky should hold these patterns very special to their heart as they are a big part of each one.
1st Degree Black Belt - Je Giyoo Youk:
2nd Degree Black Belt - Dueng Sang:
Choong Sil Patterns
The Choong Sil Kwan Patterns were taught directly to Master Serdinsky by its founder Grandmaster Hardin. The purpose of Choong Sil Kwan Taekwon-Do is to develop an individuals mental and physical well being through a highly stylized and deliberate form of rigorous martial arts training. The result of this training is the empowering sense of self-worth and the ability to control ones physical state and personal destiny. The student is guided into four stages of philosophical development:
Song Song: (30 moves, right foot returns) Means Imagination. In the initial stage of philosophical development, students must use their imagination to set goals beyond their current limitations and from this visualize their achievements in advance. This in turn strengthens their belief system to the point that specific goals are possible and obtainable.
Yong Gom: (40 moves, left foot returns)Means Inspiration. With goals firmly in mind, the students must also learn to self-inspire themselves into action, as they develop a sense of self-worth. Without this, one may never strive for success as they may feel that they do not deserve the rewards that accompany achievement.
Hyun Sil: (50 moves, left foot returns) Means Actualization. Actualization is to actually take the first step and enter into the process of the work and reward system. The development of a strong work ethic is the most important element in this philosophy. Even the most average of people can achieve excellence with a positive work habit.
Sil Hyung: (60 moves, right foot returns) Means Realization. Realization refers to the attainment of ones goals. Upon reaching these achievements, new privileges are merited as new goals are recognized. This process perpetuates itself as the previous results offer new challenges and new responsibilities. This positive growth cycle not only improves oneself, but also the immediate world around you.
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